Jul 6, 2024

**Part 1**: Electrostatics Field and Potential- Point charges, system of charges, dipoles
- Fields, energies, forces, potentials due to these charges

**Part 2**: Gauss's Law (separate class)- Applications, geometries like shells, sheets, spheres, conductor properties

- Electrostatics deals with forces, fields, and potentials due to charges at rest.
**Electric Force**: Attraction or repulsion due to electric charges.- Comes from
**charges**: Positive (protons) or Negative (electrons)

- Comes from

**Like Charges**: Repel each other**Unlike Charges**: Attract each other**Neutral Bodies**: Neither attract nor repel**Quantization of Charge**- Charge is found in multiples of the elementary charge (e = 1.6 × 10^-19 C)

**Conservation of Charge**- Total charge in an isolated system remains constant

**Formula**: F = k * (q1 * q2) / r^2- k = 9 × 10^9 Nm^2/C^2

**Vector Form**: F = k * (q1 * q2) / r^3 * r_vector**Applications**: Calculating forces between point charges

**Definition**: E = F / q (Force per unit positive test charge)- SI Unit: N/C or V/m

**Point Charge Field**: E = kQ / r^2**Superposition Principle for Electric Fields**- Net electric field is vector sum of individual fields

**Definition**: Work done to bring a unit positive charge from infinity to a point- V = W / q
- SI Unit: Volt (V) or J/C
- Potential Difference: V = V2 - V1

**Potential Due to Point Charge**: V = kQ / r**Superposition Principle for Potentials**- Net potential is algebraic sum of individual potentials

**Formula**: E = -dV/dr (Electric field is negative gradient of potential)**Equipotential Surfaces**- Surfaces where potential is constant
- Electric field lines are perpendicular to equipotential surfaces

**Dipole Moment (p)**: p = q * d (Charge * separation distance)- Unit: C·m, Direction from negative to positive charge

**Field and Potential Due to Dipole****On Axis**: E = (2k*p) / r^3**On Equator**: E = (k*p) / r^3- Potential: V = (k * p * cosθ) / r^2

**Dipole in External Field****Torque (τ)**: τ = pE sinθ = p ⨯ E**Potential Energy (U)**: U = -p · E

- Calculation of forces, fields, potential, and potential energy for various charge configurations
- Applying superposition principle for multiple charges
- Understanding equilibrium positions in uniform and non-uniform fields

- Mastery of Coulomb's law and vector addition for forces and fields
- Understanding of basic electrostatic principles: conservation, quantization of charge
- Ability to calculate and understand electric potential and potential energy
- Comprehension of dipole behavior in different fields

Note: For detailed problems and examples, refer to the assigned DPPs and the lecture slides. Ensure practice of a variety of problems to solidify understanding and prepare for exams.