
Average Rate of Appearance/Disappearance
 Use molarity and mole ratios to find rates.
 Understand positive (appearance) vs. negative (disappearance) rates.

Rate Law Problem
 Analyze experimental data to determine rate law and rate constant.
 Understand concentration effects on reaction rates.

Graphical Plots for Reactions
 Identify reaction order through graphical analysis (ln[A] vs. time).

Units of Rate Constants
 Determine units based on reaction order.
 Use formula: M^(1n)S^(1).

Zeroorder, Firstorder, and Secondorder Calculations
 Use appropriate formulas and graphical methods to solve for concentration, time, and rate constants.

Activation Energy Calculation
 Use Arrhenius equation and given data to determine activation energy (Ea).

Equilibrium Constant Problems
 Write correct expressions, calculate Kc, and interpret equilibrium constants.

pH and pOH Calculations
 Use given concentrations and, if necessary, equilibrium constants (Ka, Kb) to find pH or pOH.

Buffer Solution Calculations
 Use HendersonHasselbalch equation to determine pH of buffers.

Solubility and Ksp Problems
 Calculate molar solubility from Ksp values and vice versa.
 Understand the effect of common ions on solubility.

Thermodynamic Relationships
 Apply ΔG = ΔH  TΔS to determine spontaneity of reactions under given conditions.
 Use K and ΔG relationships to validate reaction spontaneity.

Electrochemical Cell Calculations
 Calculate cell potentials using standard and Nernst equation for nonstandard conditions.
 Balance redox reactions correctly.