Jul 3, 2024

- Course includes an overview of significant topics, assignments, and submission policies.
- Motivation: Digital processing of analog signals for better programmability, cost efficiency, and reduced system development time.

**Sensors**: Convert real-world analog signals (e.g., voice, RF signals, pressure) to electrical signals.**Digital Processing**: Signals processed digitally for functions like amplification, filtering, decoding.**Actuators**: Convert processed digital signals back to analog (e.g., speakers, LEDs).

**Analog Signals**: Continuous in both time and amplitude.**Digital Systems**: Synchronous state machines recognizing data at clock edges; quantized in time and amplitude.

**Role**: Convert continuous-time, continuous-amplitude signals to discrete-time, discrete-amplitude signals and vice versa.**Processes**:**Sampling**: Discretizes time while keeping amplitude continuous.**Quantization**: Discretizes amplitude.

**Challenges**: Amplifying small signals, minimizing information loss during conversion.

- Converts continuous-time, continuous-amplitude signals to discrete-time, continuous-amplitude signals.
**Ideal Sampling**: Time quantization without loss of information.**Mathematical Sampling**: Understanding sampling from a spectrum perspective.

- Converts discrete-time, continuous-amplitude signals to discrete-time, discrete-amplitude signals.
**Quantization Process**: Determines appropriate discrete level for continuous values, often using search algorithms.**Example**: Comparators used to find input amplitude bins.**Flash ADC**: Uses parallel comparators for high-speed conversion; significant in systems requiring low latency (e.g., disk drives).

**Components**: Variable gain amplifier, filters, ADC, timing recovery loop.**ADC Requirement**: High-speed, low-resolution (e.g., 6-bit flash ADC).**Applications**: Real-time data reading and processing.

**Understanding Circuit Non-idealities**: Real circuit behavior vs. mathematical idealizations.**Characterization**: Evaluating the output signal quality and accuracy.

**Process**: Converts discrete-time, discrete-amplitude signals back to continuous-time signals.**Applications**: Music reproduction, precision instruments, and direct digital synthesis.**DAC Architectures**: Various methods to achieve accurate reconstruction.

**Required Areas**: DSP, analog circuits, devices, control theory.**Analogous Task**: Combining sampling and quantization with an understanding of noise, non-idealities, and artifact handling.

**Anti-aliasing Filters**: Essential to filter out high-frequency noise before sampling to avoid aliasing artifacts.**Ideal vs. Practical Sampling**: Real sensors detect broadband noise, needing careful filtering.**Reconstruction**: Mathematical principles for perfect reconstruction and practical implementations highlighting challenges.